A new study published by Perth's Edith Cowan University School of Management has concluded that immigrants who work in the Australian resource industry with 457 visas are not stealing jobs from Australian citizens. According to the study, foreign workers are filling highly demanded jobs for which the local labor market cannot provide adequate supply. Some of the skill that are required for getting-off the big resource projects in Western Australia are so specialized that they are taught by only two or three institutions globally. The job of the helicopter engineer for example requires six licenses that can be received only in United Kingdom or France. This is the reason why the 457 visa is very popular with Australian employers who want to fill certain skill gaps with foreign employees. The temporary visas can last for up to four years after which their holders have the option to apply for permanent residence.